Saturday, October 11, 2008

Ye Jianying

Ye Jianying was a Chinese Communist general and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1978 to 1983.


Born Ye Yiwei into a wealthy merchant family in Mei County, Guangdong, his courtesy name was Cangbai . He belonged to the Hakka minority. After graduation from the Yunnan Military Academy in 1919, he joined Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang . He taught at the Whampoa Military Academy and joined the communist party in 1927.

In 1927, he participated in the failed Nanchang Uprising and was forced to flee to Hong Kong with another two communist leaders of the uprising, Zhou Enlai and Ye Ting , with two handguns among them. Although strongly opposed the Guangzhou Uprising with other military commanders such as Ye Ting in the same year, they nonetheless faithfully carried out their assigned duties in the uprising, which of course ended in disaster again, and once again, Ye was forced to flee to Hong Kong, like other communist leaders such as Ye Ting and Nie Rongzhen. However, Ye Jianying was far more fortunate than Ye Ting who was made a scapegoat of the failure of the Comintern policy and forced into exile, Ye Jianying was not blamed and subsequently studied military science in Moscow.

After returning to China in 1932 he joined the Jiangxi Soviet. He served as Chief of Staff of Zhang Guotao's Fourth Front Army. However, after the Zhang's force met with Mao Zedong's force during the Long March, Comintern's plan of letting him help Zhang Guotao was dashed when Mao Zedong and Zhang Guotao disagreed on the next move of the Chinese Red Army. Zhang insisted on turning southward to establish a new base in the regions inhabited by and Qiang minorities, which later proved to be a disaster, causing Zhang to lose over 75% of his force and eventually forced him to return to the communist base in Shaanxi, as Mao correctly pointed out the way it should. As chief of staff of Zhang Guotao, Ye Jianying realized Mao was right but could not convice Zhang to go with Mao's plan, and instead of supporting Zhang unconditionally like he did during the Guangzhou Uprising, Ye Jianying sided with Mao Zedong by escaping to Mao's headquarter from Zhang's headquarter, taking all the codes books and maps with him. As a result, Zhang's communication with Comintern was cut while Mao established the radio link with the Comintern, which was forced to accept Mao's leadership in the Communist Party of China. Mao would never forget the contribution of Ye and in his own words, "Ye Jianying saved the Party, the red army, and the revolution".

During the Long March, Ye Jianying assisted Liu Bocheng in directing the crossing of the Yangtze River at Anshunchang and Luding Bridge, and became director of the offices that liaised with the KMT after 1936, first in Xi'an, then in Nanjing and finally in Chongqing. He worked together with Zhou Enlai in this capacity.

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Ye was put in charge of Guangdong , which cost him his political career under Mao's reign. Ye understood that the economic condition in Canton was very different from the rest of China in that most Cantonese landlords were peasants themselves who participated in production and were not exploiting other tenant peasants, so they were not struggled, and their properties including business and land were protected. However, Ye's practice contradicted the general policy of the communist land reform in China, which emphasized on class struggle, and Ye's policy was deemed too soft. As a result, Ye and his local cadres were soon replaced by Lin Biao's, and a much harsher policy like in the rest of China was implemented, and Ye's political career under Mao was effectively over.

However, Mao did not forget what Ye had done for him during the Long March and thus only removed him from political posts while at the same time, retained his military post. As a result, until 1968, Ye would be active in various military functions, including Defense Minister, having been made a marshal in 1955. Ye Jianying was clever in using his military influence and power to provide some limited support and protection for some of the reformers such as Zhao Ziyang, and he was responsible for spoiling assassination attempts on Deng Xiaoping's life during the Cultural Revolution.

He led the conspiracy of generals and Party elders that overthrew Jiang Qing and the , and during the initial discussion of the planning at his residence with Li Xiannian, both communicated by writing even though they sit right next to each other because the possible threat of bugging. He retired as vice-chairman of the Party when the position was abolished in 1982, and left the Politburo in September 1985. He died at 89 in Beijing.

Yap Kwan Seng

Yap Kwan Seng was the last Chinese kapitan of Kuala Lumpur from 1889 to 1902. Kapitans were appointed chiefs or headmen of the various ethnic communities during the British colonial rule in what is present-day Malaysia. Kapitans played an important role in the history of the in Malaysia. They wielded considerable influence, contributing to social, economic and political development in areas under their jurisdiction.

Yap Kwan Seng, of Hakka descent, was born in 1846 in the Chak Kai district of China. He moved to at the age of 18 and worked as a tin miner in Seremban.


In 1870, Yap packed his bags for Selangor where he began his hard work to help pioneer the tin mining industry. He made his fortune in tin-mining. It is said he had a workforce of 7,000 and soon owned more tin mines than any of his contemporaries.

As a businessman, he foresaw an increased demand for bricks in fast-growing Kuala Lumpur and established a kiln in a district which came to be called Brickfields, a name by which it is still known today.

Yap was elected the fifth Kapitan in 1890 and was also appointed a member of the State Legislative Assembly of Selangor.

He ran his own small police force that helped him manage his many business interests. Yap was also the first Chinese to serve on the Kuala Lumpur Sanitary Board.

During the Pahang War in 1892 and the Boer War, Yap assisted the British by providing transportation, supplies and funds.

Yap also helped introduced the Chinese system of mining in West Africa when he sent thirty of his miners to assist the governor Sir William Maxwell in establishing the mining industry.

Social Contributions


Kapitan Yap was also a firm believer in education and co-founded one of the oldest schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia –Victoria Institution.


Kapitan Yap Kwan Seng’s philanthropic deeds and his many contributions to the birth of Kuala Lumpur are the stuff of history. Among his numerous achievements, perhaps one of the most significant is the founding of Pooi Shin Thong providing free medical services to the poor. The center grew and was later renamed Tung Shin Hospital, located along Jalan Pudu. The expenses were, of course, underwritten by the Kapitan himself.

A compassionate leader, he also co-founded the Tai Wah Ward of the Pauper’s Hospital that became the Kuala Lumpur General Hospital as well as Chak Kai Koong Kon in Jalan Sultan.


His philanthropic deeds extended beyond and it is said that a year before he died in 1901, he donated the princely sum of ten thousand dollars towards famine relief in India, a gesture which surely qualifies as Malaysia’s first-ever effort at international humanitarian aid.


Yap Kwan Seng owned houses in Kuala Lumpur and Macau

Kuala Lumpur

The Kapitan’s residence in Kuala Lumpur was located on High Street in Kuala Lumpur’s Chinatown, which is today known as Jalan Tun H.S. Lee.

It was massive, occupying the greater part of the street, with many deep courtyards, and a large garden in front for entertaining guests. Over 50 people, many of whom were servants, lived in the house. The ancestral hall was particularly impressive as it had a grand altar table upon which was placed chunks of crystal, quartz, gold and other precious stones found in the Kapitan’s tin mines.


The kapitan's mansion in Macau was apparently even bigger than the Kuala Lumpur residence. It was long and deep, with countless rooms, nooks and crannies, and so large that many sections were perpetually dim as they had no access to natural light.

Death and Recognition

Yap died in 1902 and was remembered as a community leader who was greatly concerned with the welfare of the people and his charity initiatives. After his death in 1902, the position of kapitan was abolished.

A major road in Kuala Lumpur called Jalan Yap Kwan Seng is named after him. Jalan Sin Chew Kee, which is located off Jalan Pudu, was also named in his honour after his tin mining business.

Yap Ah Loy

Yap Ah Loy , also known as Yap Tet Loy and Yap Mao Lan, started the development of Kuala Lumpur as a commercial and mining centre during the mid 1800s. Yap Ah Loy became a Kapitan Cina and the headman of a settlement of inhabitants. After the in 1963 Kuala Lumpur became the capital of Malaysia. Today, there is a street named after him in the heart of Chinatown in Kuala Lumpur, known as 'Jalan Yap Ah Loy' .


Yap Ah Loy was born in the Guangdong Province of southern China on the 14 March 1837. His parents lived in the village of Tam Shui in the Kwai Yap district of the Fui Chiu prefecture. He was therefore by descent a Hakka of the Fui Chiu clan. Yap Ah Loy left China via Macau for the in 1854. On his arrival in Malaya, he found that the place was very much different from China. The scenery, with tall coconut and betel palms, and the small atap houses was a new and fascinating experience to him. Atap is a Malay word and it is a house of traditional design that uses wood and straw to build the walls and roof respectively.

On his arrival at Malacca Yap Ah Loy was given shelter by one of his clansman called Yap Ket Si. He was then taken to a tin mine in Durian Tunggal, where he stayed for 4 months. At the end of that period he left for Kesang where he found work in the shop of a relative named Yap Ng. He remained there for a year before arrangements were made to send him back to China via Singapore. Misfortune befell him when he lost all his money while waiting for the junk to set sail in Singapore for China. Instead of going back to Malacca he and another of his relatives named Yap Fook traveled on foot to Lukut in Selangor.


Yap Ah Loy arrived in Lukut, in the state of Selangor, in 1856 at the age of 19. He spent his early years in the peninsula as a miner and petty trader, but in 1862 his fortunes improved when his friend Liu Ngim Kong succeeded Hiew Siew to became the second Kapitan China of Kuala Lumpur, a position not only of leadership within the Chinese community but also of liaison with the Malay political system and, after British intervention in 1874, with British officials as well. He served as Liu's trusted lieutenant and became the third Kapitan China of Kuala Lumpur after Liu's death in 1869, after which he began to put together a sound administration and a strong fighting force.

When civil war broke out in Selangor in 1870, Yap Ah Loy was faced with internecine fighting among dissident Chinese groups as well as attacks from factions. His decisive victory at Kuala Lumpur in 1873 proved to be the turning point in the war and left him in a strong political position. Until 1879 he was almost supreme in the interior of the state. As the acknowledged leader of the Chinese community he had been given the powers of a Malay ruling chief by the British except for the right to tax, a restriction he easily evaded. He achieved a striking post-war recovery in the mining industry and established Kuala Lumpur as the economic centre of the peninsula. Through his control of the tin market, his ownership of local "farms" , and his diverse business interests, he amassed a considerable personal fortune.

In 1879, the first British resident was assigned to Kuala Lumpur, and from that time the power of the Kapitan began to be undermined. None of Yap Ah Loy's successors approached his power and independence of action.

In 1884, Yap Ah Loy began to plan a visit to China. He proposed to appoint Yap Ah Shak and Chow Yuk to manage his property in his absence. For some reasons the plan was postponed. On the 1 September 1884, natural catastrophes caused widespread damage to property in Kuala Lumpur. The violent storm blew down 14 houses and a wing of the newly built Police barracks. The storm also damaged the barrack's residential area and the flagstaff.


At the end of 1884, Yap Ah Loy fell ill with bronchitis and an abscess of the left lung. In March 1885, he made little recovery before but he passed away on 15 April 1885. The doctor examined Yap's body and later confirmed that his death was either due to heart failure or poisoning by the fumes of the charcoal brazier. The doctor also noticed the exceptional brightness of his eyes.

Significant contributions

*Founder of Kuala Lumpur.
*Built the
*Introduced the first steam pump into .
*Kept peace among the 10,000 Chinese in town with the aid of only 6 policemen.
*He founded the first Chinese school in Kuala Lumpur, in 1884.

The founder of Kuala Lumpur

During his post as the Kapitan, he started the development of Kuala Lumpur, which has been the modern capital city of Malaysia since 1963. His contribution changed Kuala Lumpur from a undeveloped estate into a famous city, especially concerning the upgrade in the condition of the roads. Even today, Kuala Lumpur owes much to his leadership due to his efforts on its behalf.

Little honorable recognition from the Malaysian government

Yap Ah Loy had contributed so much to the development of Kuala Lumpur in the past, but the current government did very little to honor him. His name is hardly mentioned elsewhere, and only one of the small roads in the area has been named after him. The local Chinese community also express their frustration that the great man would be forgotten in the future.

Kuala Lumpur's Kapitan

* 1858-1861: Kapitan Hiu Siew
* 1862-1868: Kapitan Liu Ngim Kong
* 1868-1885: Kapitan Yap Ah Loy
* 1885-1889: Kapitan Yap Ah Shak
* 1889-1902: Kapitan Yap Kwan Seng

The post of Kapitan was later abolished after the death of Kapitan Yap Kwan Seng.

Yang Xiuqing

Yang Xiuqing , , organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion.

Yang was a salesman of firewood in Guangxi province before he joined the rebellion. In 1848 he converted to Christianity after reporting that he had experienced visions of God. In 1850 he began to claim that he could miraculously heal true believers. He was an early participant in the rebellion and rose quickly to prominence; in 1851, when Hong Xiuquan took the title of Heavenly King for himself, Yang was made commander-in-chief of the army. Yang was further named "East King", in keeping with three other leaders of the rebellion who were given titles as "kings" the four quarters of the Heavenly Kingdom. Yang devised an extensive network of spies to root out the intrigues of loyalists in the kingdom. By the 1850s Yang became the most powerful leader of the Taiping Rebellion.

Under Yang's direction, the city of Nanjing , which became the capital of the Heavenly Kingdom, was taken in 1853. As Hong became increasingly disinterested in politics and more interested in his harem, he named Yang as his prime minister for the Heavenly Kingdom. Yang clashed with Hong over the rebellion's policies and views toward Confucianism and iconoclasm; Yang believed that Confucian morality was essentially positive and that its basic tenets were compatible with the rebellion's interpretation of Christianity and that images of dragons were not . Hong, however, rejected this notion and believed that Confucianism ought to be eradicated, as it was the work of the devil. This, and Yang's conspiracies for greater power raised Hong's ire, and in 1856, Yang was murdered by Hong's followers. In the three months that followed, Hong killed Yang's family and thousands of the dead East King's adherents. The fortunes of the Taiping Rebellion subsequently declined as the rebellion's leaders became involved in internecine conspiracies and intrigues.

Yang Jinghui

Yang Jinghui is a male who competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics.

He won the gold medal in the synchronized 10 metre platform competition together with Tian Liang.

Yang Fuqing

Yang Fuqingborn in Meizhou was an vice important leader during the middle and late Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government 1855-1874. Yang Fuqing created famous Chinese gang in Los Angeles, California in 1866. He was a young brother-in-law to Yang Xiuqing.

In 1858 Yang Fuqing defeated Wei June and occupied the Chizhou for Taiping.

In 1864 the Nanjing loss and finished Taiping Rebellion, Yang escaped to American from Shanghai by ship.Some pseudohistorys said Yang bring Hong‘s son to US!

Yang came back China again and was arrested and died during the siege of Fuzhou in 1874, then he just join in Green Standard Army and prepare organized anti-Qing espionage inner newly troops but were discovered by colonel Wei June and Brigadier General Ma Zongher. Although look appearance that Yang was unwise, in fact 1874 was the 10 years memory which finished Taiping Rebellion, this look like ceremony‘s act maybe shamed on and blameed himself for escaped single from millions deaths Taiping‘s old brothers made him pain every day and night in American, and if he were arrested by Wei and Ma that could laughed at their surrender to Qing. He rather lay down and drop his last blood on China mainland the great homeland! Yang‘s action of back China to make people emotion endless and respected. He really a Martyr for Chinese revolution.


Tiān Guó Zwi

Xue Yue

Xue Yue was one of Nationalist China's best generals. Nicknamed by General Claire Chennault of Flying Tigers fame as the Patton of Asia. Born to a Hakka peasant family in Lechang, Guangdong, Xue joined the Chinese army in 1914, at the age of 18. When Chiang Kai-shek formed the Whampoa Military Academy years later, Xue was one of the graduates. After Chiang purged the communists during the , Xue's army chased the Communists 12,000 miles by foot and nearly annihilated them, forcing them to the Long March. For these accomplishments, Chiang Kai-shek hailed him as "a true example of an officer."

After the Xian incident, however, Xue's loyalty was in doubt after he offered to personally arrest Chiang Kai-shek and hand him over to the Communists if Chiang refused to fight the Japanese immediately. Although he immediately reconciled with Chiang Kai-shek, his relations with the KMT were strained throughout the . Xue commanded the 19th Army Group that fought the Battle of Shanghai. Later, during the Campaign of Northern and Eastern Honan 1938 he commanded the Eastern Honan Army.

Xue was also involved in the defense of greater Wuhan, commanding the 1st Army Corps. In the mountains northwest of Wuhan, Xue succeeded in nearly destroying the entire 106th division of the imperial Japanese army. During the battle, most of the Japanese officers were killed and the Japanese had to air-drop 300 officers by parachutes into the battlefield. Xue Yue was also responsible for the victories of the 9th Front, in the and Battle for Changsha. His forces of the 9th Front was also also victorious at the Battle of Changde but were defeated in the .

During World War II, KMT and opposed to providing him and his men ammunition to fight the Japanese due to the rampant corruption in the KMT. Chennault, however, supplied Xue with weapons to the dismay of Stilwell. Xue's 9th Front was also responsible for protecting Chennault's air fields. Chennault and Xue became sworn brothers and remained close friends until Chennault's death in 1958.

After WWII, Xue's relation with Chiang suffered a further blow when Xue refused to be abide by Chiang Ching-kuo's financial/economical reform. Xue refused to exchange his gold for the Gold Yuan paper currency as mandated by law. When Huang Shaoxiong informed Xue that this was illegal, Xue responded that he and his subordinates' gold was paid in blood and he would personally shoot Chiang Ching-kuo if he attempted to arrest him. In the end, Xue and his subordinates managed to keep most of their gold. When Chiang Kai-shek retreated to Taiwan in 1949, Xue was put in charge of defending Hainan island. Unfortunately, the victorious Red Army was too much for the demoralized Nationalist Forces. Xue left for Taiwan after the defense of Hainan Island collapsed. He was semi-retired and served as a nominal adviser to the army in Taiwan. He lived until 1998 to the age of 101. He led Chiang's Funeral in 1976. Over all, he was one of the most accomplished and respected military leaders from Haungpu Military Academy.